Last year in January, a bronze memorial bust of Josip Runjanin from Vinkovci, the composer of the Croatian national anthem Lijepa naša, was stolen in Vinkovci, and despite a public invitation and an announced award, it has unfortunately not been found to this day. Due to the mentioned incident, the city authorities started thinking about how to protect the monumental heritage, and decided to scan the entire monumental heritage with the help of a 3D scanner so that replicas of the scanned monuments could be made in the future.”Despite the public invitation and the announced prize of 5.000 kuna, we did not find a memorial bust and we decided to make a new one. Unfortunately, due to advanced years, Antun Babić was not able to make a new memorial bust, so we offered this job to the academic sculptor Dejan Duraković.”, Said Vinkovci Mayor Mladen Karlić, adding that in considering how to protect monuments in public space from future possible alienation, there was a realization of the existence of 3D scanners in Vinkovci Association of Persons with Disabilities “Bubamara” Vinkovci.”We have a 3D scanner and part of the necessary equipment and it will be our pleasure to use it to preserve the monumental heritage in the City of Vinkovci”, Said the president of” Bubamara “Tomislav Velić.According to the head of culture and tourism of the City of Vinkovci, Mario Banožić, there are about 180 specimens of monumental heritage in the area of the city of Vinkovci. “We estimated that the one who stole the bronze memorial bust of Josip Runjanin, which was placed on the square of the same name in 1971, could earn a maximum of 500 kuna by selling it in secondary raw materials, and making a new bust will cost us 50.000 kuna. Not to mention the huge cultural damage”, Said Banožić.A new memorial bust of Josip Runjanin was presented, which will be placed in place of the stolen one for the Day of the City of Vinkovci, July 20. When we talk about cultural tourism, it is certain that 3D scanner technology enables the preservation of monumental heritage for future generations that has been devastated or destroyed, either due to the theft or deterioration of cultural treasures. The original always has and will always have a much higher value than a replica, but if we already have to bit between a replica or nothing, then a replica is a much better option.Josip Runjanin (Vinkovci, 1821 – Novi Sad, 1878) was a Croatian composer and officer in the Austro-Hungarian army. He set Antun Mihanović’s song “Croatian Homeland” to music, which was proclaimed the Croatian anthem called “Our Beautiful Homeland”.Source: www.bubamara.hr
In the new terminal of the Franjo Tuđman Airport, testing of traffic processes is underway, which will last until the opening, scheduled for March 2017.Under the supervision of the ORAT team (Operational Readiness & Airport Transfer) composed of experts from the group ADP, TAV and MZLZ, Zagreb International Airport and Croatia Airlines from 20 to 22 December 2016 conduct the first tests of parking aircraft Airbus 320 on a new parking lot and landing on air bridges where future passengers will board and disembark in / from aircraft.”The purpose of these tests is to examine the management of aircraft operations in contact with the new terminal and compliance with regulated safety and operational efficiency standards agreed between the national carrier, Croatia Airlines and Zagreb International Airport. “They point out from the Zagreb International Airport.More than 50 professionals will take part in these tests on a daily basis: the aircraft crew and ground staff of Croatia Airlines, MZLZ Manager for Security, Airport Protection and Coordination of Operational Processes, and MZLZ Ground Services for Reception and Dispatch of Aircraft. Tests are simulations of actual operating conditions during the day and night.This process of joint examination between the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports and all stakeholders involved in operational processes will continue at a steady pace until the opening of the New Passenger Terminal to ensure optimal preparation of all employees involved in operational processes.
At the initiative of the city of Vukovar, the first Croatian Vukovar 3D ZOO was established in the city.Vukovar 3D Zoo consists of 5 3D anamorphic paintings with a total size of about 100m2 made for the City of Vukovar by the famous artist Filip Mrvelj, who also painted the first anamorphic painting on the bridge over the Vuka in Vukovar. Mayor Ivan Penava said that the new paintings were set in the wake of the success that the first such painting in Vukovar caused in the public. “Thanks to the celebrated artist Filip Mrvelj, on the promenade in the center of Vukovar, we got 5 more such paintings that will, I’m sure, cause enthusiasm among the citizens of Vukovar and its visitors because this is something unusual.”, Pointed out Penava.The author of the pictures, Filip Mrvelj, says that he did not expect such a great coverage of the first picture, which provoked numerous positive reactions and was recorded in all local and national media, but also on social networks. These 3D anamorphic images or images of the illusion of three-dimensional space are made on pvc linoleum attached to a concrete base. Otherwise, the Anamorphic image gets a 3D effect when viewed from a single point using a lens (mobile phone, camera, camera). Photo: Press032Vukovar 3D Zoo is a continuation of the project “Days of graffiti Vukovar” and is also the second step leading to the realization of an ambitious project called “Vukovar – Port of Art” which will be realized in 2017 when the world’s best artists from the world of 3D anamorphic picture.”By designing new social facilities and innovations in social infrastructure, we want to change the views of the city of Vukovar and raise and improve the quality of life, taking into account that this art form creates great interaction with local people and tourists because of its attractiveness.” and the value of the contracted works amounted to HRK 33.750,00, and they were financed by the City of Vukovar.Photo: Press032
In 2016, the Opatija Tourist Board launched the project “Opatija Hike – Historical trails and promenades” which aims to revitalize, popularize and arrange Opatija trails and promenades by the sea and in the hinterland and connect them into a single network with a new marking system.Along with the most famous Opatija promenade Lungomare, the goal of the project “Opatija Hike” is to revive the existing promenades in the hinterland to create additional content for guests of Opatija that will enrich their stay. An operational working group consisting of Goran Pavlović (Opatija Tourist Board), Dalibor Korenić (KŠR Gorovo), Florijan Tomc (JU PU Učka), Zorica Sergo (Cultural Society Leprinac), Nikola Špehar (TA Olinfos), Ph.D. Igor Eterović (PD Opatija) and Neven Ivanić (Adverbum).“The inventory determined the existing condition of the promenades, the necessary requirements for rehabilitation and repair, and the need for signalization so that the paths and promenades could be valorized for tourism. ”Is the conclusion of the working group. All paths and promenades were visited: the Carmen Sylva promenade, the path for Veprinac in two directions: Opatija-Zatka-Veprinac and Opatija-Kolavići-Veprinac, then the path for Učka: Opatija-Ičići-Poljane-Poklon and the coastal promenade Lungomare. The trails are categorized according to the criteria of difficulty, and will be thematically processed, so there will be specially marked promenades without obstacles suitable for families with prams or for the disabled, for walking with pets, school in nature and the like.”The main goals of the project” Opatija Hike – Historical trails and promenades “is to connect the” blue “and” green “part of the destination so that visitors, who are not necessarily hikers, can experience a new experience of discovering a unique combination of sea and worse. Also, a new tourist product is being created that would attract guests 365 days a year with the development of special “health” packages that include outdoor activities in combination with “indoor wellness programs” ”Emphasized the director of the Tourist Board of the city of Opatija, Suzi Petričić.The starting point for all routes is in the center of Opatija on Slatina (in front of the Police Station) where an initial information board will be set up showing all the trails with their characteristics and other useful information. Orientation during the walk will be facilitated by signposts with pictograms and distance markers, and the trails will be digitized and can be downloaded to a mobile device using a QR code.Today, the first in a series was presented, the “Carmen Sylva” route, on which 63 new signposts were set up and 8 educational boards were renewed due to wear and tear. The complete infrastructure has been arranged: the paths have been supplemented with gravel, a new fence has been built and renovated, the Mala and Vela fortica have been arranged and the surrounding vegetation has been arranged. The new signalization will also reveal special, hitherto hidden places like Carmen Ruha – a bench carved in the rock, on which Carmen Sylva, the Romanian queen, sought inspiration. The following is the arrangement of the historical path Put Mlekarice from Opatija to Veprinac.
Pinterest Beethoven composed some of his most famous works after he became profoundly deaf. Share on Twitter Share Email LinkedIn More recently, musicians such as Ozzy Osbourne and Phil Collins have encountered problems with their hearing. Tinnitus affects many more, from Eric Clapton and Neil Young to will.i.am.Now a collaborative project between the University of Leeds and Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust is bringing together music psychologist Dr Alinka Greasley and Dr Harriet Crook, Lead Clinical Scientist for Complex Hearing Loss, to investigate how music listening experiences are affected by deafness, hearing impairments and the use of hearing aids.The project, Hearing Aids for Music, will look at how people use hearing aids in musical situations, from listening to music at home to going to a symphony or rock concert.Dr Greasley, from the University’s School of Music, pointed out that you don’t need to have lived a rock ’n’ roll lifestyle to have a hearing impairment.“As a population we’re tending to live longer, and many people’s hearing naturally declines as we get older,” she said. “Action on Hearing Loss reports that there are 10 million people with hearing impairments in the UK – two million of them wear hearing aids – and these numbers are rising.“Music is an important part of people’s lives and can have powerful physical, social, and emotional effects on individuals, including those with all levels of hearing impairment – even the profoundly deaf. The purpose of hearing aids is to amplify speech, and evidence suggests that many hearing aid users experience problems when listening to music, such as acoustic feedback, distortion and reduced tone quality.“Exploring these issues systematically, through a combination of in-depth interviewing and a large-scale national survey, will allow us to understand these problems and identify areas for improving the perception of music using hearing aid technology.”As well as providing advice to hearing aid users, results will be used to help audiologists talk about music listening issues with patients in their clinics. The research may also benefit manufacturers of hearing aids by providing a basis for improved digital signal processing, helping users of the technology to access music.Dr Crook, an expert in the neuroscience of music perception based at the Royal Hallamshire Hospital, said: “This is the first time hearing test data has been used alongside social psychological data to create a systematic exploration into how hearing aids affect music listening behaviours.“Improved access to music using hearing aids will benefit people of all ages, facilitating music education for deaf children and young people, music listening and performance in adulthood, and continued musical engagement into old age.”Despite the large numbers of those affected, very little is known about the music listening experiences and behaviour of people with hearing impairments because previous studies have assumed a typical level of hearing in participants.“People tell us that modern digital hearing aids have proved a revelation because they reveal hitherto ‘lost’ sounds such as a humming fridge or boiling kettle, yet listening to music is still problematic” said Dr Greasley.Pianist Danny Lane, himself profoundly deaf, is Artistic Director of West Yorkshire charityMusic and the Deaf, founded in 1988 to help deaf people access music and performing arts.He said: “This research is very much needed. Music and the Deaf often receives emails from musicians or parents of musical children who are frustrated with their hearing aids.“Music forms a very important part of their lives – anything that might help improve their enjoyment of it, whether as listeners or performers, is to be welcomed.”Dr Greasley is conducting interviews with hearing aid users and will also lead a large-scale national online survey.Dr Robert Fulford, a Post-doctoral Research Fellow at the University, is also working on the three year project, which has been awarded funding worth £247,295 from the Arts and Humanities Research Council.Drs Greasley, Crook and Fulford are joined by an advisory panel consisting of experts in auditory processing, digital signal processing, hearing aid fitting, hearing therapy and deaf education.Their findings will benefit hearing aid users and people with all levels of deafness, both in the UK and internationally, through open access content on the project website and forum. Share on Facebook
LinkedIn Share Pinterest Share on Twitter Share on Facebook The number of children we have and at what age is not just a conscious decision made as an adult. Apparently young parents are noticeably impressed by childhood experiences, as a new analysis on Turkish migrant data by the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research (MPIDR) in Rostock, Germany, proves. Women born in Turkey who moved to Germany after entering school became mothers more often and at younger age than women who were born to Turkish parents in Germany. Both groups have children earlier and more frequently than Western German non-migrants.These findings have now been published by MPIDR researcher Katharina Wolf together with Sandra Krapf from the University of Cologne in the journal Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie.“Our aim was to understand integration better,” says MPIDR researcher Katharina Wolf. It is no surprise for demographers that fertility of migrants and non-migrants differs. It has been previously shown that women immigrating to Germany from countries with higher birth rates initially have more children and become mothers at a younger age. But their behavior adjusts to that in Germany during the course of integration. So far it has been unclear how strong the influence of the home country’s culture is after years or even generations. Katharina Wolf distinguishes between migrants of the “second generation” who were born to Turkish parents in Germany and migrants of the “1.5 generation” who were born in Turkey and moved to Germany before they were 17. While in the 1.5 generation 86 percent of all women already had a first child by 35, the percentage was only 77 for the second generation. It was even lower for Western German non-migrants of whom only 63 percent had become mothers by age 35. For comparison, among women living in Turkey nine out of ten have at least one child by the same age. (This number, 90 percent, is not a result of the MPIDR paper but stems from an earlier Turkish study).The migrants born in Turkey (1.5 generation) were the youngest to have their first child. Half of them had already become a mother by 24. For women born to Turkish parents in Germany this age was 27, while it was highest for non-migrants in Western Germany at 31 years.Socialization during childhood or adaption as adults?“Socialization during early childhood has much more impact on family planning than one would think,” says Katharina Wolf. Women of the two migrant generations behaved differently when it came to childbearing, although before motherhood they all had lived in Germany for at least a couple of years. Thus, during young adulthood they all got to know the conditions for families in Germany such as daycare, child and parental leave benefits, and attitudes of employers and society, says Wolf.This is why Katharina Wolf believes that it must be the ideas of family foundation and gender roles observed and taught early by their mothers in Turkey that significantly influence women of the 1.5 migrant generation to have children more frequently and at a younger age. Embracing the ideas of one’s parents and their culture during childhood is what scientists call socialization.The environment of socialization is very different for the 1.5 generation in Turkey and the second generation in Germany. Birth rates are considerably higher in Turkey with 2.2 children per woman compared to about 1.4 in Germany. Not only would childlessness be much lower in Turkey, but also less accepted, says MPIDR researcher Katharina Wolf. “Especially in rural areas women often follow traditional gender roles and stay at home and have many children early.”Impact of childhood vanishes with higher educationSo far it has been an open question, which influence will prevail: socialization during childhood or adaption to the new country’s society during adulthood. All in all socialization seems to have the upper hand for the 1.5 generation of Turkish immigrants, says demographer Wolf. However, the effect strongly depends on education. The higher a women’s educational level the smaller the differences in frequency and timing of births between all groups of women in the study, including Western German non-migrants.The results of the new MPIDR study only refer to Turkish immigrants. They nevertheless have general relevance, says Katharina Wolf, “our findings could probably also be applied to other migrant groups.” But that would only be appropriate if the women came from home countries where birth rates were higher than in the destination country and ideas and values of births and family differed between both countries in a similar way as between Germany and Turkey.Fertility research for the immigration country GermanyAccording to the German Federal Statistical Office 2.9 million people with Turkish roots lived in Germany in 2014 (that’s 3.6 percent of the total population). Among the country’s 16.4 million inhabitants who are foreigners, immigrants or their children (20.3 percent of total population) this is the second largest group after Germans with migration background.For their study demographers Wolf and Krapf evaluated data of about 3,000 women with and about 83,000 women without migration background. They used data from the “Mikrozensus” surveys from 2005 and 2009. The Mikrozensus is an annual one-percent sample of all German households. In 2005 and 2009 participants were asked not only for their nationality and the year of immigration (if they were migrants), but also for the citizenship of their parents. Only through this extra question was it possible to identify descendants of Turkish immigrants and thus distinguish between the 1.5 and the second generation of migrants. Email
LinkedIn Share on Facebook One of the ongoing themes of the current presidential campaign is that Americans are becoming increasingly distrustful of those who walk the corridors of power – Exhibit A being the Republican presidential primary, in which three of the top four candidates are outsiders of Washington.Yet at the same time, these three – Donald Trump, Ben Carson and Carly Fiorina – are very powerful in their own way, be it as a billionaire entertainment and real estate mogul, a neurosurgeon and conservative media pundit or a former corporate chief executive officer.So what makes us place trust in powerful people? We performed four studies on the nexus between power and trust and found some surprising results. Email Share Share on Twitter Pinterest Rational actor theoryTypically, when asked, many people will be reluctant to admit that they would place blind trust in somebody who is in a high-power position. Too many stories of politicians and top executives abusing their power run through the media. Making oneself vulnerable to such power holders thus doesn’t seem like the sensible choice.Rational actor theories agree with this anecdotal wisdom: they suggest that people will be trustworthy toward someone else only if being so is instrumental in maintaining that relationship. Given that powerful people tend to have many partners to choose from, they place – relatively speaking – less value in any particular relationship, reducing the likelihood that they will behave in a trustworthy fashion.In other words, powerful individuals can afford to betray others – they can always find new people to work with. Rational actor theories further assume that the less powerful party to an exchange will predict this behavior and, as a result, place less trust in their more powerful counterpart.However, our research shows that this is not the case. In fact, we observe exactly the opposite pattern. Over a wide variety of different experimental paradigms and measures, we find that less powerful actors place more trust in others than more powerful actors do. That is, trust is greater when power is low rather than high.In a negotiation setting, for example, low-power negotiators perceived their partners to be more trustworthy than high-power negotiators did. In an investment game, low-power players entrusted their partners with more money than did high-power players.But why would that be the case? Why didn’t we find results consistent with predictions from rational actor theories?Studies in power and trustWe conducted four experiments that tested whether being in a weaker or stronger power position is linked to differences in trust perceptions and behaviors.Study one used an established negotiation task, in which participants were asked to negotiate over a consignment of cellphones. We put participants either in a low- or high-power position, depending on the viability of their fall-back option (another buyer) in case the negotiations with the partner failed. Negotiators in the high-power position trusted their negotiation partner significantly less (as measured through a perceptual survey scale of trust) than did participants in the low-power condition.Study two was based on an investment task (also known as the “trust game”), in which participants had the option to either keep a monetary endowment to themselves or invest it in a partner, in which case the money was tripled, but it would be up to the partner to decide whether to send back some of the money or keep all the money to him- or herself. Some participants were put in the position of the “power player,” enabling them to switch partners if they wanted to. We found that power players sent significantly less money – and thus trusted less – than non-power players.Studies three and four both used a scenario in which participants assumed the role of a typist offering services to a new potential client. They could either provide a free sample to the client and thus trust that the client would come back with follow-up jobs or they could save their time and not provide a free sample (and thus not trust the client). Participants were given several pieces of information about themselves and the new client, for example, specifying how urgently needed the typing business is for them and how much the client depended on their services, which allowed us to manipulate power.In both studies, participants in the high-power condition were significantly less trusting. Study four furthermore provided insight into the causal chain connecting power and trust. It revealed that having low power amplifies people’s hope that their exchange partner will turn out to be benevolent, which then leads to their decision to trust.Motivated cognitionIn sum, people who lack power are motivated to see their partner as more trustworthy in order to avoid the anxiety inherently attached to their feelings of dependence. This is known as “motivated cognition.”These power-disadvantaged actors thus effectively protect themselves by perceiving power holders in a positive light, even if little or no relevant information would support such perceptions. Their hope that their powerful partner will be trustworthy dominates their cognition and decision-making.The powerful partner, on the other hand, has no reason to engage in significant motivated cognition. In sum, the decision to place trust seems to be based more on one’s motivation to protect oneself from unwanted realities than on relatively rational calculations of the other party’s deliberations.Power inequitiesOur results bring new insight into the drivers of trust decisions. Trust is a critical ingredient in successful social exchange. But the threat of misplacing one’s trust and suffering the detrimental consequences of a breach make trust risky. Thus, researchers have paid considerable attention to the factors that facilitate or hinder trust in various settings.However, one potentially important source of variation in trust had received little attention so far – namely, power. This is surprising, since many, if not most, trust relationships involve nontrivial power inequalities between exchange partners. Examples include relationships between patients and doctors, students and professors, employees and supervisors, and small and large firms.It is well-known that behavior in social exchange relationships is significantly affected by power inequalities that involve one actor depending on the other. The prevalence of power inequalities in relationships in which trust is critical led us to ask: does having power or lacking power increase or decrease an actor’s tendency to place trust in others? Our results provide a clear answer to this question. They show that people low in power are significantly more trusting than more powerful people and that this effect can be explained by motivated cognition.Trust and governmentOur findings can be applied to a variety of settings, including the public’s institutional trust in powerful entities such as governments. Recent findings show that many power holders are actually admired and even seen in a very positive light.Yet this seemingly high trust in power holders contradicts the low levels of trust people have in their leaders. Americans consistently show very little trust in the federal government, with just 24% saying they trust it in 2014.A possible explanation for these divergent perspectives is provided by social distance. Following this idea, while self-reported trust in anonymous political decision makers in far-away Washington may be at all-time lows, trust in local politicians with whom people have interpersonal interactions is often high.To conclude, on the most general level, our findings may help better understand why societies with stark hierarchical differences can be functioning and enduring. In a counterfactual world where people low in power would refuse to place trust in power holders, many of the advantages of hierarchies (such as improved coordination, reduced conflict and stability) might not be attainable. These considerations underline the centrality of “irrational” acts of trust for the existence of a relatively stable society.By Martin Reimann, Assistant Professor of Marketing, University of Arizona and Oliver Schilke, Assistant Professor of Management and Organizations, University of ArizonaThis article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.
Share Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Every day, we are confronted with choices about how to spend our money. Whether it’s thinking about picking up the tab at a group lunch or when a charity calls asking for a donation, we are faced with the decision to behave generously or not.Research suggests that spending money on others can improve happiness, but can it also improve your physical health?There is some evidence that donating time can improve physical health, but no one has looked at whether donating money has the same effect. LinkedIn So my colleagues and I at the University of British Columbia decided to conduct an experiment to find out if spending money on others could lower blood pressure, which will be published in the journal Health Psychology in December.Helpful people might be healthierA 1999 study examining whether volunteering had an effect on mortality provided initial evidence for an association between helping others and physical health. In the study, adults age 55 and older reported how many organizations they helped, how many hours they spent volunteering, and then underwent a physical exam.Researchers controlled for several factors, including how healthy participants were when the study began and their available social support. After five years the adults who reported providing more help to others were 44% more likely to be alive.In a more recent study, researchers measured blood pressure and volunteering once at baseline and again four years later. They found evidence that older adults who volunteered at least four hours per week in the 12 months prior to the baseline blood pressure measurement were less likely to develop high blood pressure four years later.Additional studies suggest that volunteering is associated with greater physical health in part because volunteering helps to buffer against stress and prevents against declines in functional health, such as declines in walking speed and physical strength.So does being helpful cause better health?It might seem simple – helping is good for your health. But so far, most research studying the health benefits of helping have been correlational. These studies cannot determine whether helping others actually causes improvements in physical health or just happens to be related to it.Also, most research has focused on the health benefits of volunteering one’s time. As it turns out, people think about time and money in vastly different ways. For example, whereas thinking about time leads people to prioritize social connections, thinking about money can lead people to distance themselves from others.It remains unclear whether the benefits of generosity extend to donating money. Our latest work provides the first empirical evidence that this decision might also have clinically relevant implications for physical health.Can spending money on others lower blood pressure?We gave 128 older adults (ages 65-85) US$40 a week for three weeks. Half of our participants were randomly assigned to spend the money on themselves and half were told to spend it on others. We told participants to spend their $40 payment all in one day and to save the receipts from the purchases they had made.We measured participants’ blood pressure before, during, and after they spent their study payments. We chose to examine blood pressure in this study because we can measure it reliably in the lab, and because high blood pressure is a significant health outcome – having chronically elevated blood pressure (hypertension) is responsible for 7.5 million premature deaths each year.What did we find? Among participants who were previously diagnosed with high blood pressure (N=73), spending money on others significantly reduced their blood pressure over the course of the study. Critically, the magnitude of these effects was comparable to the benefits of interventions such as anti-hypertensive medication and exercise.The participants who were previously diagnosed with high blood pressure, and who were assigned to spend money on themselves, showed no change in blood pressure during the study. As expected, for people who didn’t have high blood pressure, there was no benefit from spending money on others.Whom you spend money on mattersInterestingly, we found tentative evidence that how people spent their money mattered for promoting the benefits of financial generosity. People seemed to benefit most from spending money on others they felt closest to. This finding is consistent with previous research from our lab showing that people derive the most satisfaction from spending money on others when they splurge on close friends and family.For instance, the first participant in our study was a war veteran. He donated his payments to a school built in honor of a friend he had served with in the Vietnam War. Another participant donated her payments to a charity that had helped her granddaughter survive anorexia.Of course, there is still a lot to learn about when and for whom the health benefits of financial generosity emerge.For example, we don’t know a lot about how or how much people should spend on others to enjoy long-lasting health benefits. Indeed, research suggests that the positive benefits of new circumstances can disappear quickly. Thus, to sustain the health benefits of financial generosity, it might be necessary to engage in novel acts of financial generosity, while prioritizing people that you are closest to.And financial generosity might not always benefit health. Drawing from research on caregiving, financial generosity might provide benefits only when it does not incur overwhelming personal costs. After reading this article, you probably should think twice before donating your entire life savings to charity, because the stress of helping so extensively could undermine any potential benefits.Although more research is needed to replicate these results, our initial findings provide some of the strongest evidence to date that daily decisions related to engaging in financial generosity can have causal benefits for physical health.Stepping toward better health (and happiness) may be as simple as spending your next $20 generously.By Ashley Whillans, PhD student in Social & Health Psychology, University of British ColumbiaThis article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article. Email Pinterest
Share Men who gamble are more likely to act violently towards others, with the most addicted gamblers the most prone to serious violence, new research has shown.A study published in the journal Addiction found that gambling in any capacity – pathological, problem, or so-called casual gambling – related to significantly increased risk of violence, including domestic abuse.Researchers surveyed 3,025 men about whether they had ever engaged in violent behaviour, including if they had ever been in a physical fight, assaulted or deliberately hit anyone, if they had used a weapon, and whether the violence was perpetrated when they were drunk or on drugs. The survey also asked if they had ever hit a child, suffered from mental illness, whether they took regular medication, or exhibited impulsive behaviour. LinkedIn Pinterest The men surveyed – who came from a range of socio-economic backgrounds across the UK and varied in age – were also asked about whether they gambled. Eighty per cent of participants admitted to taking part in some sort of gambling activity during their lifetime.The researchers found a statistically significant link between gambling and violent behaviour, which became starker the more severe the gambling habit. Just over half of pathological gamblers, 45 per cent of problem gamblers, and 28 per cent of ‘casual gamblers’ reported some form of physical fight in the past five years.In contrast, among the non-gamblers, only 19 per cent reported being involved in violence.Additionally, gambling was associated with an increased likelihood of weapons being used in acts of violence, with more than a quarter in the pathological category, 18 per cent of problem gamblers, and seven per cent of non-problem gamblers reporting weapon usage. Just over 15 per cent of non-problem gamblers also admitted to having had a fight while intoxicated, which rose to more than a quarter in problem gamblers and almost a third in pathological gamblers.The study also found that pathological and problem gamblers are more likely to have hit a child, with almost 10 per cent of pathological gamblers and just over 6 per cent of problem gamblers admitting to such behaviour. Those with likely pathological gambling problems also had increased odds of committing violent behaviour against a partner.The results remained statistically significant even after adjusting the data to account for related characteristics such as mental illness or impulsive behaviour. However, it was not clear whether gambling and the propensity towards violence have a common cause, or whether one increases risk of the other.Researchers said the findings could help improve prevention and treatment programmes.The study was led by psychologists from the University of Lincoln, UK, working with researchers from Queen Mary University, University College Cork, University of East London, Imperial College London, and AUT University in New Zealand.Lead author Dr Amanda Roberts, from the University of Lincoln’s School of Psychology, said: “Understanding the relationship between gambling and violence will help treatment services tailor intervention and treatment programmes for their clients.“Our study examined a nationally representative sample of males and confirmed strong links between problematic gambling and violent behaviours, and also showed links with non-problem gambling. The results reinforce the view that public health efforts to prevent problem gambling should include education around violence, and that there could be value in integrating those efforts with alcohol and drug abuse programmes.“Given the strong associations identified, there is some justification for establishing a standard battery of screens for gambling, alcohol, drug and violence issues in a range of mental health and addictions settings.”The study participants were men ranging in age from 18 to 64 years and came from a range of socio-economic backgrounds across England, Wales and Scotland.The level of their gambling problem was determined by scoring a series of 20 questions answered by participants: people with a score of zero to two were classed as non-problem gamblers, those with scores of three and four were defined as problem gamblers, and probable pathological gamblers were those who scored five or more.The paper Gambling and violence in a nationally representative sample of UK men, has been published in Addiction. Share on Facebook Email Share on Twitter
The other is that because the young adult participants were also enrolled as adolescents in the New England Family Study, the researchers knew how participants were faring in 2002, before the advent of Facebook. The study, therefore, suggests that their later negative experiences on Facebook likely led to their increased levels of depressive symptoms, rather than just reflecting them, said Stephen Buka, professor of epidemiology at Brown and study co-author.“This as close as you can get to answering the question: Do adverse experiences [on Facebook] cause depression?” Buka said. “We knew how the participants were doing as kids before they had any Facebook use, then we saw what happened on Facebook, and then we saw how they were faring as young adults. It permits us to answer the chicken-and-egg problem: Which comes first — adverse experiences on Facebook or depression, low self-esteem and the like?”Negative experiences and depressionOne of the study’s most basic findings is that 82 percent of the 264 participants reported having at least one negative Facebook experience (NFE) since they started using the service, and 55 percent had one in the year before they were surveyed in 2013 or 2014. Among the participants, 63 percent said they had four or more NFEs during their young lifetimes.Meanwhile, 24 percent of the sample reported moderate-to-severe levels of depressive symptoms on the standard Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.To determine the risk of depressive symptoms independently attributable to NFEs, the researchers in their statistical analysis controlled for depression as adolescents, parental mental health, sex, race or ethnicity, reported social support, daily Facebook use, average monthly income, educational attainment and employment.After all those adjustments, they found that among people who experienced any NFEs, the overall risk of depressive symptoms was about 3.2 times greater than among those who had not.The risk varied in many ways, for instance by the kind of NFE. Bullying or meanness was associated with a 3.5 times elevated risk, while unwanted contact had a milder association of about 2.5 times.Frequency also mattered. Significantly elevated risks were only associated with unwanted contacts or misunderstandings if there were four or more, but even just one to three instances of bullying or meanness was associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms.Similarly, the more severe a person perceived incidents to be, the more likely they were to be showing signs of depression, Rosenthal said.Being conscious of the risksIt will take more research to determine who might be at most specific or strongest risk for potential depression related to NFEs, Rosenthal said.But for now it may be prudent for teens and young adults to recognize that NFEs could lead to prolonged symptoms of depression and that if they have negative emotions related to Facebook experiences, it might be worthwhile to take a break. Another strategy might be to unfriend people who are becoming sources of NFEs.“There is research that shows that people tend to feel more entitled to bully online than they do in person or engage in unwanted contact online than they would in person,” Rosenthal said. “In some ways it’s higher risk. It’s worth people being aware of that risk.”The study’s other authors are Brown University Professors Brandon Marshall, Kate Carey and Melissa Clark. Email Share on Facebook LinkedIn Share on Twitter In the first study of its kind, public health researchers show that young adults who reported having negative experiences on Facebook — including bullying, meanness, misunderstandings or unwanted contacts — were at significantly higher risk of depression, even accounting for many possible confounding factors.“I think it’s important that people take interactions on social media seriously and don’t think of it as somehow less impactful because it’s a virtual experience as opposed to an in-person experience,” said lead author Samantha Rosenthal, an epidemiology research associate in the Brown University School of Public Health who performed the research as part of her doctoral thesis at Brown. “It’s a different forum that has real emotional consequences.”The study, in press in the Journal of Adolescent Health, is novel in at least two important ways. One is measurement of the prevalence, frequency, severity and nature of negative interpersonal experiences, as reported by the 264 participants. Other studies have used measures such as the amount of time spent using social media or the general tone of items in news feeds. Pinterest Share