Senate reviews ethnic and racial statistics on crime

first_imgSenate reviews ethnic and racial statistics on crime Racial impact statements planned on 2020 criminal justice bills Arrest and incarceration rates for African Americans remain substantially higher than for whites and Hispanics in Florida, but may disappear in a couple of crime categories, according to projections from Florida State University.The Senate Criminal Justice Committee heard a report from FSU’s College of Criminology and Criminal Justice November 5 on various criminal justice statistics.The report is part of a novel partnership between the Senate and FSU to produce racial and ethnic impact statements on criminal justice bills being proposed for the 2020 legislative session. That in turn stems from the legislative drive to get more data about the criminal justice system and the impact of suggested changes.“This year, the Senate is partnered with the Florida State University College of Criminology and Criminal Justice to analyze the evidence based racial and ethnic impacts of proposed legislation during the 2020 session,” Chair Sen. Keith Perry, R-Gainesville, explained at the start of the meeting.Dr. Thomas Blomberg, dean of the college, said the presentation gave the committee a look at 10 years of data and how the department used that to predict trends through 2023.But, in an answer to a question from Sen. Randolph Bracy, D-Orlando, that came midway through his testimony, Blomberg said the report did not look at underlying reasons for racial disparities in criminal justice outcomes.“You talked about the disparity between blacks and whites in arrests, do you have any indications what’s causing that disparity?” Bracy asked.Blomberg said he anticipated that question. “Here’s the best response I believe we can provide,” he said. “There’s a lot of literature that tries to address the known disparities between blacks and others in the criminal justice system. There’s two positions on that. Is it differential offending, or is it differential treatment? What the best literature says is it’s a combination of both. There is some differential offending, but there’s also differential treatment.”For instance, he said African Americans have a lower arrest rate for cocaine and crack cocaine and, before it was legalized in many areas, for marijuana and about the same arrest rate for heroin as whites. On the other hand, they have a higher arrest rate for property and violent crimes.“What many authors cautioned is, ‘Don’t necessarily conclude race is a driving factor, but rather economics,’” Blomberg said. “The role of race is a little more complicated than some people typically acknowledge.”Data presented by Blomberg represented arrest and incarcerations records from 2009 through 2018, and expected trends for 2019 through 2023. Some of the statistics, he said, came from the Office of the State Courts Administrator, which only had African-American and white ethnic statistics, with Hispanics being divided between those two classifications. The Department of Corrections provided the rest of the information and had breakdowns for Hispanics, African Americans, and whites.Trends and forecasts were based on the arrest and incarceration rate per 10,000 Floridians between the ages of 18-59.Overall, the study found in 2018 whites made up 50.5% of the state’s population, Hispanics account for 28.8%, and African Americans make up 17.1% — while making up over half the prison population. Since 2009, that’s a 5.1% decrease for whites, a 11.8% increase for African Americans, and 33.3% increase for Hispanics. Those population trends are expected to continue for the next five years, Blomberg said.Those aged 45-64 and 65 and above were the largest segments of the population, with those over 65 making up the fastest growing sector. Those 18-24 — the age group most likely to offend — was the smallest age contingent and also the slowest growing.Other data showed:• Unlike whites, blacks are more likely to be arrested for felonies than misdemeanors, although overall arrest rates for both categories are dramatically declining regardless of race. For those 18-59, the arrest rate for African Americans for misdemeanors was 5.12% in 2009, 3.07% in 2018, and is projected at 2.31% in 2023. Misdemeanor arrests for whites were 2.53% in 2009, 1.74% in 2018, and is projected at 1.41% in 2023. For felonies, the rate for African Americans was 5.46% in 2009, 3.8% in 2018, and is projected at 3.13% in 2023. For whites, the rate was 1.93% in 2009, 1.62% in 2018, and is projected at 1.57% in 2023.• Jail sentences and probation for misdemeanors are declining for both whites and blacks, and by 2023 there is predicted to be little difference. Felony probation rates, though, are projected to rise with almost twice as many African Americans on felony probation as whites. Felony imprisonment rates have declined for blacks since 2009, and are projected to fall slightly by 2023, but still be at almost twice the level as felony jailings for whites, which have increased slightly since 2009, when the white imprisonment rate was less than a third of that for African Americans.• The imprisonment rate for violent crimes is falling for whites, Hispanics, and especially African Americans, but is expected to remain much higher for African Americans by 2023. Imprisonment rates are also falling fast for property crimes for all three groups and the FSU statistical projection showed the property crime imprisonment rate for African Americans to be lower than for whites by 2023. Rates for both groups, though, are predicted to be higher than for Hispanics.• Prison admissions from drug crimes have been declining slightly for whites and Hispanics and dramatically declining for African Americans, although they still have a higher incarceration rate for those infractions. By 2023, that rate is expected to approach that for whites, but still much higher than for Hispanics.Perry said he expected to send several proposed bills to FSU shortly for their racial and ethnic impact statements, and Blomberg said it would take around five days to perform that analysis. That information will include, he said, any evidence from similar past legislation and experience with similar legislation in other states.Sen. Jason Pizzo, D-Miami, asked how the length of sentences have changed for similar offenses over the past 10 years, and Blomberg said that information would be compiled.Blomberg also told the committee that the most effective tools for reducing recidivism are education for juvenile offenders and jobs for adults leaving prison.“If they [juveniles] returned to school and stayed in school their recidivism plummeted,” he said. “The role of education and employment is clearly a turning point away from crime. If people have jobs, they’re not out committing crimes.” Nov 07, 2019 By Gary Blankenship Senior Editor Top Storieslast_img read more

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Apple ups developer game at WWDC

first_imgHome Apple ups developer game at WWDC AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to LinkedInLinkedInLinkedInShare to TwitterTwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookFacebookShare to MoreAddThisMore 04 JUN 2019 Tags Appledeveloper toolsuser interface Apple unveiled new technologies it said will make it easier and faster for developers to create powerful new apps at its WWDC 2019 event.Showcasing its SwiftUI development framework, Craig Federighi, SVP of software engineering, said it “transforms user interface creation by automating large portions of the process and providing real-time previews of how UI code looks and behaves in-app”.The company said using simple, easy-to-understand declarative code, developers can create full-featured user interfaces with smooth animations. This saves time by providing a “huge amount of automatic functionality”, including interface layout, Dark Mode, Accessibility, right-to-left language support and internationalisation.SwiftUI is compatible with iOS, iPadOS, macOS, watchOS and tvOS.A new graphical UI design tool built into Xcode 11 makes it easier for developers to quickly assemble a user interface with Swift UI, without writing any code. SwiftUI code is automatically generated and, when it’s modified, changes to the UI instantly appear in the visual design tool.The company said the tools’ ability to fluidly move between graphical design and writing code makes UI development “more fun and efficient”, and also makes it possible for developers and designers to collaborate more closely.AR featuresApple said its ARKit 3 technology “puts people at the centre of AR”. With motion capture, developers can integrate people’s movement into their app and, with people occlusion, AR content will display in front of or behind a person to deliver a more immersive AR experience and green-screen like applications.ARKit 3 enables the front camera to track up to three faces, along with simultaneous front and back camera use. Collaborative sessions are available, making it faster to jump into a shared AR experience.The company also touted RealityKit, “built from the ground up for AR”, featuring photorealistic rendering, “incredible environment mapping”, and camera effects such as noise and motion blur.RealityKit can be accessed via a new RealityKit Swift API.Also debuted was Reality Composer, a new app for iOS, iPadOS and Mac enabling developers to prototype and produce AR experiences with no prior 3D experience. With a drag-and-drop interface and library of high-quality 3D objects and animations, developers can place, move and rotate objects to assemble an AR experience that can be integrated into an app in Xcode, or exported to AR Quick Look.Mac crossoverApple unveiled new tools and APIs to make it easier to bring iPad apps to Mac computers.With Xcode, developers can open an existing iPad project and “check a single box” to automatically add fundamental Mac and windowing features, and adapt elements including keyboard and mouse.Mac and iPad apps also share the same project and source code, so any changes made translate to both, saving developers time and resources. Apple said this provides a “huge head start” on building a native Mac version of an app.Machine LearningA feature dubbed Core ML 3 enables acceleration of more types of advanced, real-time ML modes. With more than 100 model layers now supported, apps can deliver software that understands vision, natural language and speech. And for the first time, developers can update ML models on-device using model personalisation, a move the company said protects user privacy.In addition, with Create ML, a dedicated app for ML development, creators can build models without writing code. Multiple-model training with different datasets can be used with new features including object detection, activity and sound classification.Apple WatchThe introduction of watchOS 6 and the ability to access the App Store directly from Apple Watch means developers can now build, design and distribute apps for the wearable which work independently.Developers can also use Apple Neural Engine on Apple Watch Series 4 using Core ML which, along with on-device interpretation of inputs, gives users more intelligent apps.A new streaming audio API means user can listen straight from Apple Watch and an extended runtime API gives apps additional time to accomplish tasks while in the foreground even if the screen turns off, including access to sensors measuring heart rate, location and motion. Subscribe to our daily newsletter Back Author Steve works across all of Mobile World Live’s channels and played a lead role in the launch and ongoing success of our apps and devices services. He has been a journalist…More Read more UK consumers seek £1.5B from Applecenter_img Related Previous ArticleTelefonica exec admits difficulty justifying 5G spendNext ArticleAmerica Movil chair flags tech as fuel for inclusion Google taps retail with NYC store Apps Steve Costello KT makes LG Electronics trade-in movelast_img read more

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Pinehurst isn’t pristine, but that’s the point

first_imgPINEHURST, N.C. — Pinehurst No. 2 is anything but perfect for the U.S. Open, at least in the traditional sense of major championships in America. USGA executive director Mike Davis could not be any more thrilled. ”It’s awesome,” Davis said Monday as he gazed out at a golf course that looks like a yard that hasn’t been watered in a month. Sandy areas have replaced thick rough off the fairways. They are partially covered with that Pinehurst Resort officials refer to as ”natural vegetation,” but what most anyone else would simply call weeds. The edges of the bunkers are ragged. The turf is uneven just off some of the greens, with patches of no grass. Instead of verdant fairways from tee-to-green, the fairways are a blend of green, yellow and brown. Shortly after this Donald Ross gem was awarded its third U.S. Open in 15 years, the fabled No. 2 course went through a gutsy project to restore it to its natural look from yesteryear, before this notion that the condition of a course had to be perfect. Ernie Els, a two-time U.S. Open champion, was amazed when he walked off the 18th green. ”I wouldn’t call this an inland links, but it’s got that character,” he said. ”I was a bit nervous when I heard of the redo. But this looks like it’s been here for a long time.” Els has been playing the U.S. Open for two decades. He never imagined the ”toughest test in golf” without any rough. Nor does he think that will make it easier. ‘You don’t need it,” he said. ”When I played it in ’99, I didn’t like it. You hit it in the rough, you’re just trying to get it out. It was one-dimensional. Now, you’re going to have an unbelievable championship. ”If you miss the fairway, you’re not just going to wedge it out. You’ve got a chance to hit a miraculous shot. And then you could really be (in trouble). This is the way it used to be.” Els said the look of Pinehurst No. 2 reminded him of Royal Melbourne, and a guy who actually grew up next to Royal Melbourne agreed. ”These are Melbourne fairways,” Geoff Ogilvy said as he walked down the first fairway, where the grass was green for the first 200 yards before turning brown, and then going back to greener grass toward the green. ”This is kind of the way grass is supposed to be. In the summer it browns up, and in the winter it’s green. To my eye, this is what golf courses are supposed to look like.” Ogilvy understand architecture better than most players. He was looking at photos as Bill Coore and Ben Crenshaw worked on the restoration. He had heard stories. And it still managed to exceed his expectations. As for the idea of a U.S. Open without rough? He pointed to clumps of grass in the sandy areas, and some of the wiregrass bushes. And yes, the weeds. ”Look, the reality is there is rough there,” he said. ”It’s probably what rough used to be like before we had crazy irrigation.” The past two U.S. Open champions finished over par – Webb Simpson at Olympic Club, Justin Rose at Merion, both at 1-over. A third straight U.S. Open champion over par would be the longest streak in nearly 60 years. Not many were willing to bet against that. ”I’ve never played anything like it,” Jordan Spieth said. ”And it’s already – right now, with the pins in the middle of the greens – hard enough for even par to win. It’s going to be extremely challenging. But at the same time, it’s a great test.” More than a great test, Davis is hopeful it sends a great message. The USGA has been preaching in recent years to get away from the idea that golf courses have to be perfectly manicured to be great. Pinehurst No. 2, and perhaps Chambers Bay next year outside Seattle, allows a chance to show the golfing public what it means. The restoration project involved removing some 35 acres of sod and keeping only 450 of the 1,150 sprinkler heads. Water use is down an estimated 40 percent. ”It’s look back in the past, but it’s really looking forward to the future,” Davis said. ”Owners, operators and superintendents won’t give you this until the golfers think it’s OK. ”At private clubs, unless the greens committee says, ‘This is what we want,’ the superintendent won’t do it. It’s people thinking, ‘This looks fine.”’ Pinehurst No. 2 effectively presents the opposite perception of Augusta National. For years, superintendents have complained that too many courses wanted to be just like the home of the Masters in the quality – near perfection – of the conditions. ”Hopefully, this sets a precedent,” Ogilvy said. ”If Augusta has been the model everyone followed, hopefully this shows that it doesn’t have to be that way to be great.”last_img read more

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