The other is that because the young adult participants were also enrolled as adolescents in the New England Family Study, the researchers knew how participants were faring in 2002, before the advent of Facebook. The study, therefore, suggests that their later negative experiences on Facebook likely led to their increased levels of depressive symptoms, rather than just reflecting them, said Stephen Buka, professor of epidemiology at Brown and study co-author.“This as close as you can get to answering the question: Do adverse experiences [on Facebook] cause depression?” Buka said. “We knew how the participants were doing as kids before they had any Facebook use, then we saw what happened on Facebook, and then we saw how they were faring as young adults. It permits us to answer the chicken-and-egg problem: Which comes first — adverse experiences on Facebook or depression, low self-esteem and the like?”Negative experiences and depressionOne of the study’s most basic findings is that 82 percent of the 264 participants reported having at least one negative Facebook experience (NFE) since they started using the service, and 55 percent had one in the year before they were surveyed in 2013 or 2014. Among the participants, 63 percent said they had four or more NFEs during their young lifetimes.Meanwhile, 24 percent of the sample reported moderate-to-severe levels of depressive symptoms on the standard Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale.To determine the risk of depressive symptoms independently attributable to NFEs, the researchers in their statistical analysis controlled for depression as adolescents, parental mental health, sex, race or ethnicity, reported social support, daily Facebook use, average monthly income, educational attainment and employment.After all those adjustments, they found that among people who experienced any NFEs, the overall risk of depressive symptoms was about 3.2 times greater than among those who had not.The risk varied in many ways, for instance by the kind of NFE. Bullying or meanness was associated with a 3.5 times elevated risk, while unwanted contact had a milder association of about 2.5 times.Frequency also mattered. Significantly elevated risks were only associated with unwanted contacts or misunderstandings if there were four or more, but even just one to three instances of bullying or meanness was associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms.Similarly, the more severe a person perceived incidents to be, the more likely they were to be showing signs of depression, Rosenthal said.Being conscious of the risksIt will take more research to determine who might be at most specific or strongest risk for potential depression related to NFEs, Rosenthal said.But for now it may be prudent for teens and young adults to recognize that NFEs could lead to prolonged symptoms of depression and that if they have negative emotions related to Facebook experiences, it might be worthwhile to take a break. Another strategy might be to unfriend people who are becoming sources of NFEs.“There is research that shows that people tend to feel more entitled to bully online than they do in person or engage in unwanted contact online than they would in person,” Rosenthal said. “In some ways it’s higher risk. It’s worth people being aware of that risk.”The study’s other authors are Brown University Professors Brandon Marshall, Kate Carey and Melissa Clark. Email Share on Facebook LinkedIn Share on Twitter In the first study of its kind, public health researchers show that young adults who reported having negative experiences on Facebook — including bullying, meanness, misunderstandings or unwanted contacts — were at significantly higher risk of depression, even accounting for many possible confounding factors.“I think it’s important that people take interactions on social media seriously and don’t think of it as somehow less impactful because it’s a virtual experience as opposed to an in-person experience,” said lead author Samantha Rosenthal, an epidemiology research associate in the Brown University School of Public Health who performed the research as part of her doctoral thesis at Brown. “It’s a different forum that has real emotional consequences.”The study, in press in the Journal of Adolescent Health, is novel in at least two important ways. One is measurement of the prevalence, frequency, severity and nature of negative interpersonal experiences, as reported by the 264 participants. Other studies have used measures such as the amount of time spent using social media or the general tone of items in news feeds. Pinterest Share
Cousins has not shown a propensity to rise to the occasion in big games, however, Trubisky has done nothing all season, except for a drive here and there.With that in mind and the Da Bears 5-16 ATS after a game with a turnover margin of +4 or better, the Vikes at +2 are simply too tempting to pass on.SBR pick: Vikings +2 (-110) Last week ended up well for underdogs, with six outright upsets and a total of nine teams beating the spread among the 16 games played.With bye weeks starting, we are down one football betting opportunity against the NFL odds, yet there remain several live underdogs with not only a chance to cover the spread, but conceivably win outright. In our travels to find underdogs with considerable value for NFL picks, we will start in the Motor City, head to the Deep South before ending up in the Windy City. Time to lock down some Sunday winners for NFL Week 4.MORE: Get the latest NFL odds at Sportsbook ReviewKansas City Chiefs at Detroit LionsSunday, Sept. 29, 1 p.m. ET (FOX) at Ford FieldTo this point, there have not been any surprises about Kansas City. The Chiefs’ offense has hit the ground running like a well-tuned Ferrari, averaging 33.7 points a game. Though that figure will not raise many eyebrows considering how Patrick Mahomes and Andy Reid have meshed together, they have accomplished this versus teams that have allowed 22 PPG. Does that get your attention?Expectations for Detroit were similar to the latest company that is losing loads of money and has an IPO ready for the stock market (not very promising). However, the Lions are 2-0-1 SU and except for the fourth quarter in Arizona in the opener, where they gave away a 24-6 lead and ended up tied, they have played well thanks to a stingy defense and clutch offense.Kansas City will move the ball, however Detroit head coach Matt Patricia knows a few things about stopping opposing offenses and his club is sixth in yards per points allowed. Mathew Stafford is more comfortable in this offense compared to last year and they are committed to running (29 attempts per game) which helps play-action passing.The Chiefs defense is generally better, yet, has given up 26 or more points twice and the feeling here is we have a three-point outcome either way.SBR pick: Lions +6.5 (-110)Week 4 NFL PICKS:Against the spread | Straight-up picksTennessee Titans at Atlanta FalconsSunday, Sept. 29, 1 p.m. ET (CBS) at Mercedes- Benz StadiumNeither Tennessee nor Atlanta was prepared from the opening kickoff last Sunday and quickly fell into a sinkhole which they were never able to escape and ended up losing. That left both teams with a losing record and one of these will have a 1-3 record by the end of Sunday and their playoff hopes will have taken a serious hit.The Falcons are a four-point home favorite in this nonconference clash with the Titans, but we think it is the home team that is in trouble. Atlanta has Matt Ryan and a multitude of receivers with great hands, a large catch radius and big-play possibilities. So why are the Dirty Birds averaging 20 PPG?Despite using two early draft picks and free agents to upgrade the offensive line, this group has not gelled. The pass protection is spotty (again) and Atlanta is 27th in rushing at a mere 74.3 yards a game. With Ryan at a half dozen interceptions already and the defense permitting 25 PPG, this is not a trustworthy team.Don’t misunderstand, Tennessee is not from the cream of the crop, but like the Falcons, they are capable of fine performances and given their recent history, this fits as the kind of contest the Titans rise to the occasion. Besides, Atlanta is 0-9 ATS vs. the AFC the last three seasons. Tennessee outright.SBR pick: Titans +4 (-110)Minnesota Vikings at Chicago BearsSunday, Sept. 29, 4:25 p.m. ET (CBS) at Soldier FieldThis should be a heavyweight bout in Chicago with Minnesota making their annual visit.These were the two favorites coming in the season in the NFC North and among the teams thought to be serious contenders out of the NFC for the Super Bowl.This confrontation features two of the top defenses in the NFL.In categories labeled points allowed, yards per play allowed and yards per points allowed, this is how they rank, respectively:Minnesota (6th, 9th and 5th)Chicago (3rd, 6th and 3rd)In other words, from the Rob Zombie song “Dragula”, the Vikings and Bears defenses are “strangling the breeze”.This puts pressure on quarterbacks Kirk Cousins and Mitchell Trubisky to make plays against defenses that are as stout as they come.